Max SPL: The Decibel Limit for Microphones and Speakers
When it comes to audio equipment, Max SPL, or Maximum Sound Pressure Level, is a crucial concept to understand. Whether you’re a musician, filmmaker, home theater enthusiast, or music lover, it’s important to understand what Max SPL means and how it affects the performance of your microphones and speakers.
What Does Max SPL Mean?
Max SPL is the maximum decibel (dB) level a microphone or speaker can handle without distorting. The decibel scale is logarithmic, meaning that a small increase in decibels represents a large increase in sound pressure. This is why Max SPL is important to consider, as going above the limit can cause permanent damage to the audio equipment.
Max SPL For Microphones
Max SPL is especially important for microphones, as it affects recorded audio quality. If the sound pressure level exceeds the rated SPL for your microphone, it will produce a distorted sound that can be difficult or impossible to fix in post-production. That’s why selecting a microphone with a high Max SPL is crucial if you’re recording loud sources such as drums, amplified guitars, or live performances. Low SPL microphones are better for recording instruments with greater detail.
Let’s take a look at a couple of examples.
A condenser microphone like the Rode NT1 has a Max SPL of around 130dB. This is perfect for recording sensitive instruments like an acoustic guitars, string instruments, and vocals.
Current Price: Rode NT1
A dynamic microphone like the Shure SM7B can handle a Max SPL of 180dB. This allows the microphone to capture guitar amps and drums at a close range without distorting. Of course, you can use these microphones for vocals as well.
Curent Price: Shure SM7B
These numbers will vary depending on the specific model of microphone you are using, and it’s important to consider the Max SPL before buying a microphone.
If you exceed the rated SPL of a microphone, it’s possible to cause permanent damage to the microphone capsule.
Related: Dynamic vs Condenser Microphones
Related: Best Dynamic Microphones
Max SPL For Speakers
Max SPL is also relevant for speakers, as it affects the volume and clarity of the sound. If the sound pressure level is too high, the speaker will produce a distorted sound that can be unpleasant. That’s why selecting a speaker with a high Max SPL is crucial if you’re playing music or sound effects at high volumes.
For example, a typical home theater speaker system has a Max SPL of around 95 dB, while a professional PA system can handle up to 126 dB or more.
Make sure to research the max SPL before purchasing a sound system, and make sure that it is rated for the SPL that you expect.
If you exceed the SPL rating of your speaker, it will sound distorted, and you can cause damage to the speaker.
Max SPL FAQs
Max SPL for speakers is the highest sound pressure level (volume) that the speakers can produce without distorting or getting damaged.
Max SPL for a microphone is the highest sound pressure level (volume) the microphone can handle without distorting or getting damaged.
Yes, you can cause permanent damage to your microphone if you exceed the max SPL rating for your microphone. You will also ruin your recording by distorting the audio signal.
Often, manufacturers will publish max SPL ratings for speakers based on theoretical calculations based on sensitivity and wattage rather than measuring them properly from one meter in a practical application. There will be some variance with the published SPL values and their practical SPL values.
Condenser microphones typically have a max SPL of 110-150db. This makes them perfect for recording string instruments and vocals in the studio.
Dynamic microphones can have a Max SPL of 150-180dB. These microphones can capture sounds from drums, guitar amps, and other loud sources in the studio or live environment.